• Lun. Apr 22nd, 2024

Artificial Intelligence tool successfully predicts fatal heart rhythm

In a Leicester study that looked at whether artificial intelligence (AI) can be used to predict whether a person was at risk of a lethal heart rhythm, an AI tool correctly identified the condition 80 per cent of the time.

The findings of the study led by the University of Leicester have been published in the European Heart Journal – Digital Health.   Ventricular arrhythmia is a heart rhythm disturbance originating from the bottom chambers (ventricles) where the heart beats so fast that blood pressure drops which can rapidly lead to loss of consciousness and sudden death if not treated immediately. The tool examined Holter electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 270 adults taken during their normal daily routine at home.   They found the AI tool performed well compared with current medical guidelines, and correctly predicted which patient’s heart was capable of ventricular arrhythmia in 4 out of every 5 cases.

Generative AI develops potential new drugs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria

With nearly 5 million deaths linked to antibiotic resistance globally every year, new ways to combat resistant bacterial strains are urgently needed.

Researchers at Stanford Medicine and McMaster University are tackling this problem with generative artificial intelligence. A new model, dubbed SyntheMol (for synthesizing molecules), created structures and chemical recipes for six novel drugs aimed at killing resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the leading pathogens responsible for antibacterial resistance-related deaths. The researchers described their model and experimental validation of these new compounds in a study published in the journal Nature Machine Intelligence.

Could AI play a role in locating damage to the brain after stroke?

Artificial intelligence (AI) may serve as a future tool for neurologists to help locate where in the brain a stroke occurred. In a new study, AI processed text from health histories and neurologic examinations to locate lesions in the brain. The study, which looked specifically at the large language model called generative pre-trained transformer 4 (GPT-4), is published online issue of Neurology® Clinical Practice, an official journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

A stroke can cause long-term disability or even death. Knowing where a stroke has occurred in the brain helps predict long-term effects such as problems with speech and language or a person’s ability to move part of their body. It can also help determine the best treatment and a person’s overall prognosis.Damage to the brain tissue from a stroke is called a lesion. A neurologic exam can help locate lesions, when paired with a review of a person’s health history. The exam involves symptom evaluation and thinking and memory tests. People with stroke often have brain scans to locate lesions.

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